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Transformational generative grammar

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Transformational grammar is a broad term describing grammars (almost exclusively those of natural languages) which have been developed in a Chomskyan tradition. The term is usually synonymous with the slightly more specific transformational-generative grammar.

Deep structure and surface structure


In the 1950s and 1960s, Noam Chomsky developed the idea that each sentence in a language has two levels of representation - a deep structure and a surface structure. The deep structure was a direct representation of the semantics of a sentence, and was mapped onto the surface structure (which followed the phonological form of the sentence very closely) via ''transformations''. There is a common misunderstanding that Deep Structure was supposed to be identical across all languages (thus creating a universal grammar), but Chomsky did not in fact suggest this in so many words. However, Chomsky did believe that there would be considerable similarities between the Deep Structures of different languages, and that these structures would reveal properties common to all languages which were concealed by their Surface Structures. It is arguable that the overriding motivation for the introduction of transformations was simply to make grammars more (mathematically) powerful, rather than to explain the origin of syntactic variations between languages. Though the ability of a grammatical theory to generalize across languages is fundamental to its worth in Chomsky's view, some of the definitive literature on early transformational grammar (e.g. Chomsky's Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, 1965) emphasizes the role of transformations in obtaining the necessary level of mathematical power in the syntactic component of a grammar, which, in his opinion, the structuralist grammars popular at the time did not have. Chomsky also emphasizes the importance of modern formal mathematical devices in the development of grammatical theory:


But the fundamental reason for the inadequacy of traditional grammars is a more technical one. Although it was well understood that linguistic processes are in some sense "creative", the technical devices for expressing a system of recursive processes were simply not available until much more recently. In fact, a real understanding of how a language can (in Humboldt's words) "make infinite use of finite means" has developed only within the last thirty years, in the course of studies in the foundations of mathematics. (Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, p8)


Development of basic concepts


Though transformations continue to be important in Chomsky's current theories, he has now abandoned the original notion of Deep Structure and Surface Structure. Initially, two additional levels of representation were introduced (LF Logical Form, and PF Phonetic Form), and then in the 1990s]Chomsky sketched out a new program of research known as Minimalism (see the relevant section in this article), in which Deep Structure and Surface Structure no longer featured and PF and LF remained as the only levels of representation.

To complicate the understanding of the development of Chomsky's theories, the precise meanings of Deep Structure and Surface Structure have changed over time - by the 1970s, the two were normally referred to simply as D-Structure and S-Structure, and D-Structure bore increasingly less resemblance to the Deep Structure of the 1960s. In particular, the idea that the meaning of a sentence was determined by its Deep Structure was dropped when LF took over this role.

Innate linguistic knowledge


Terms such as "transformation" can give the impression that theories of transformational generative grammar are intended as a model for the processes through which the human mind constructs and understands sentences. Chomsky is clear that this is not in fact the case: a generative grammar models only the knowledge which underlies the human ability to speak and understand. One of the most important of Chomsky's ideas is that most of this knowledge is innate, and that all languages conform to a set of ''principles'', while differing only in the values of certain ''parameters'' (and of course raw vocabulary). Therefore, a baby can have a large number of expectations about the structure of language in general, and need only deduce the values of the various parameters for the language(s) it is learning. Chomsky was not the first person to suggest that all languages had certain fundamental things in common (he quotes philosophers writing several centuries ago who had the same basic idea), but he helped to make the innateness theory fashionable after a period dominated by more behaviorist attitudes towards language. Perhaps more significantly, he made concrete and technically sophisticated proposals about the structure of language, and made important decisions about how the quality of any given theory of grammar should be evaluated.

Chomsky goes so far as to suggest that a baby need not learn any actual ''rules'' specific to a particular language at all. Instead, all languages are presumed to follow the same set of rules, but the effects of these rules and the interactions between them can vary greatly depending on the values of certain universal linguistic parameters. This is a very strong assumption, and is one of the more subtle ways in which Chomsky's current theory of language differs from most others.

Grammar theories


In the 1960s, Chomsky introduced two central ideas relevant to the construction and evaluation of theories of grammar. The first was the distinction between ''competence'' and ''performance''. Chomsky noted the obvious fact that people, when speaking in the real world, often make linguistic errors (e.g. starting a sentence and then abandoning it midway through). He argued that these errors in linguistic performance were irrelevant to the study of linguistic competence (the knowledge which allows people to construct and understand grammatical sentences); according to this argument, the linguist can study an idealised version of the language, greatly simplifying linguistic analysis. The second idea related directly to the evaluation of theories of grammar. Chomsky made a distinction between grammars which achieved ''descriptive adequacy'' and those which went further and achieved ''explanatory adequacy''. A descriptively adequate grammar for a particular language defines the (infinite) set of grammatical sentences in that language, whereas a grammar which achieves explanatory adequacy gives an insight into the universal properties of language which result from the innate linguistic structures in the human mind. Therefore, if a grammar has explanatory adequacy, it must be able to explain the various grammatical nuances of the languages of the world as relatively minor variations in the universal pattern of human language. Chomsky argued that, even though linguists were still a long way from constructing descriptively adequate grammars, progress in terms of descriptive adequacy would only come if linguists held explanatory adequacy as their goal. In other words, real insight into the structure of individual languges could only be gained through the comparative study of a wide range of languages.

"I-Language" and "E-Language"


In the 1980s, Chomsky proposed a distinction between ''I-Language'' and ''E-Language'', similar but not identical to the competence/performance distinction. I-Language is taken to be the object of study in syntactic theory; it is the mentally represented linguistic knowledge which a native speaker of a language has, and is therefore a mental object from this perspective, most of Linguistics is a branch of Psychology. E-Language ecompasses all other notions of what a language is, for example that it is a body of knowledge or behavioural habits shared by a community. Chomsky argues that such notions of language are not useful in the study of innate linguistic knowledge, i.e. competence, even though they may seem sensible and intuitive, and are useful in other areas of study. Competence, he argues, can only be studied if languages are treated as mental objects.

"Grammaticalness"


Chomsky went against the prevailing viewpoint amongst linguists in the first half of the 20th Century by suggesting that the notions "grammatical" and "ungrammatical" could be defined in a meaningful and useful way. An extreme behaviorist linguist would argue that language can only be studied through recordings or transcriptions of actual speech, the role of the linguist being to look for patterns in such observed speech, but not to hypothesise about why such patterns might occur, nor to label particular utterances as either "grammatical" or "ungrammatical".

Chomsky argued that the intuition of a native speaker is enough to define the grammaticalness of a sentence; that is, if a particular string of English words elicits a double take, or feeling of wrongness in a native English speaker, it can be said that the string of words is ungrammatical. This is entirely distinct from the question of whether a sentence is meaningful, or can be understood. It is possible for a sentence to be both grammatical and meaningless, as in Chomsky's famous example "colourless green ideas sleep furiously". Such sentences are nonsensical in a very different way to from meaningful but ungrammatical (non-)sentences like "man the bit sandwich the", the meaning of which is fairly clear, but which no native speaker would accept as being well formed.

The use of such intuitive judgements freed syntacticians from studying language through a corpus of observed speech, since they were now able to study the grammatical properties of contrived sentences. Without this change in philosophy, the construction of generative grammars would have been almost impossible, since it is often the relatively obscure and rarely-used features of a language which give linguists clues about its structure, and it is very difficult to find good examples of such features in everyday speech.

Minimalism


Much current research in transformational grammar is inspired by Chomsky's ''Minimalist Program'', outlined in his book ''The Minimalist Program'' (1995). The new research direction involves the further development of ideas involving ''economy of derivation'' and ''economy of representation'' which had started to become significant in the early 1990s, but were still rather peripheral aspects of TGG theory. Economy of derivation is a principle stating that movements (i.e. transformations) only occur in order to match ''interpretable features'' with ''uninterpretable features''. An example of an interpretable feature is the plural inflection on regular English nouns, e.g. ''dog''s. The word ''dogs'' can only be used to refer to several dogs, not a single dog, and so this inflection contributes to meaning, making it ''interpretable''. English verbs are inflected according to the grammatical number of their subject (e.g. "Dogs bite" vs "A dog bites), but in most sentences this inflection just duplicates the information about number that the subject noun already has, and it is therefore ''uninterpretable''. Economy of representation is the principle that grammatical structures must exist for a purpose, i.e. the structure of a sentence should be no larger or more complex than required to satisfy constraints on grammaticalness (note that this does not rule out complex sentences in general, only sentences which have superfluous elements in a narrow syntactic sense). Both notions, as described here, are somewhat vague, and indeed the precise formulation of these principles is a major area of controversy in current research. An additional aspect of minimalist thought is the idea that the derivation of syntactic structures should be ''uniform''; that is, rules should not be stipulated as applying at arbitrary points in a derivation, but instead apply throughout derivations. For this reason, Deep Structure and Surface Structure are not present in Minimalist theories of syntax. Minimalism in the sense described here has no philosophical association with Minimalism, the artistic and cultural movement.

Mathematical representation


Returning to the more general mathematical notion of a grammar, an important feature of all transformational grammars is that they are more powerful than context free grammars. This idea was formalized by Chomsky in the Chomsky hierarchy. It is now generally accepted that it is impossible to describe the structure of natural languages using context free grammars (at least if these descriptions are to be judged on vaguely Chomskyan criteria).

Transformations


Some of the rules of Transformational-Generative Grammar are quite simple, such as the Head Initial/Final rules:

  • Head Final - the Head occurs after its argument.
  • boldly ''go'' (verb phrase)
  • the big white ''house'' (noun phrase)

Most languages tend to favor only one of these structures (there are exceptions). Japanese is a Head Final language, whereas English is a Head Initial language. Slightly more languages are Head Final.

Other rules are more complex, such as the so-called "Wh-Question Formation Rule" for English, which can be summarized as:

1. Begin with a simple declarative, with a missing item:
  • He gave X a book.
    2. Insert the appropriate Wh-word for the expected lexical category of the answer:
  • He gave ''to whom'' a book.
    3. Change the form of the verb to the appropriate "did X" construction:
  • He ''did give'' to whom a book.
    4. Use Subject-Auxiliary Inversion to form an interrogative:
  • ''Did he'' give to whom a book?
    5. Move the Wh-word element to the front of the sentence:
  • ''To whom'' did he give a book?

    While Chomsky and others have abandoned much of traditional TGG (the mechanisms described in the example above have been out of date since the late 1960s), it continues to have useful applications in syntactic analysis and the study of children's language acquisition.

    See also


    Generalised Phrase Structure Grammar
    Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar
    Lexical Functional Grammar
    parasitic gap
    syntax

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